“The Newar humans are indebted to their united states for their individualistic, once prominent and flourishing subculture; related to that, they have got a noticeably developed traditional structure which is of national importance…”
The Newar homes are built around a small rectangular or rectangular courtyard or a quadrangle forming the agencies, one residence adjacent the alternative , or sharing common wall in between with at least one house presenting get admission to to the street via a low height gateway on the floor ground. although courtyard planning is the simple factor within the Newar structure, within the minority of cases, houses are even constructed on both facet of the road.The multifunctional courtyard changed into/is the centre of the residence. Here, the family spend a whole lot of its time. Children could play at the same time as the lady done their family chores. It now not only served as a vital environmental element however additionally region for social interplay.
Most often used construction technique in conventional Newar constructing is load – bearing brickwork creation, with floor joists spanning between the back and front walls and the crucial spine wall. The foundations generally includes a few layers of natural stone or compacted brick, this is observed by way of brickwork which usually attains the wall thickness of the ground floor and which keeps into the superstructure with none damp evidence layer.Despite the negative exceptional of the soil in most part of the valley, the principles of one to four- storey buildings are not lots deeper than 60-eighty centimeters and wider than 70 centimeters.The cornice, assisting the decrease give up of the slanting roof struts is fashioned by way of one-of-a-kind carved timbers and two or 3 layers of projecting moulded bricks ( Karnes Appas), which overlap at the corners of the buildings to emerge as an important decorative constructing detail. The brick joints are stored to a minimal thickness in order that the clay mortar can not be without problems washed away by means of rain. This is very apparent inside the brick dealing with, wherein the bricks are Traditional Newari Architecture wedge formed and , consequently, brick facet adjoins brick part at the outer or seen face and the mortar is often hidden within. The high-quality lines between the edges of those bricks were regularly sealed with a aggregate of ( Oil ( tel), resin ( Saldup) and crimson earth ( Sindur).
Construction Materials:WOOD in particular used as columns ,beams,rafters and for creation of doors, home windows, stairs. ( Shorea Robusta, Pinus roxburghii, Schima Wallichii, Quercus glauca and Michelia Champaca ,all Latin names, species of local trees were used.METALS copper, iron, brass, bronze had been usually used. Extremely expensive building cloth, it changed into used on non secular and door facings, lattice- works, door latches.
NATURAL STONE sedimentary rocks or metamorphic stone accumulated from the quarries located at the north and south aspects of mountain slopes.
BRICKS AND TILES mud bricks were used for production of walls. Mud was/is without problems to be had as a local building fabric. clay tiles were substantially used for roof coverings and for courtyard paving, terrace floors and ground coverings ( Ceramic tiles
MORTAR Grey clay changed into used as jointing material. Special mastic along side gray clay changed into used for spiritual homes, palaces and other critical homes, usually together with conical bricks. Lime-Surkhi, Lime stone become also used.
Roofs:The roof is double- pitched with the ridge on the line of the crucial spine wall, and a projecting overhang of about 850 mm at back and front. The structure is of wood and incorporates columns at the crucial line helping a ridge beam, intermediate purlins supported on primary rafters, a wall plate , an outer beam supported on angled struts, after which the rafters pegged collectively over the ridge beam and projecting out over the walls to the outer beam. Onto the rafters are laid wooden or split bamboo laths, then a thick ( 150mm ) layers of sterile mud finished with small fired clay roof tiles ( jhingati) embedded on it.
Roof is the maximum hanging architectural function in conventional Newar buildings.
Huge projecting roofs ( Pau in Newar language). Hovering roof form with bracket support overhanging precariously on constructing walls with bracket assist.
Set one over the alternative in Pagoda form one over the other.
Protect brick walls in mud mortar from climate: Rain and Sun.
Overhang: Dwelling- 1000mm, Vihara-1500mm, Temples- Up to 4000 mm.
Roof- Construction:Design and detail of roof production equal in all homes.
With rafters (musins) of the topmost roof of temple meeting at a point on critical publish ( than)
Ridge piece ( dhuri) rests on decrease sleeper partitions which can be an extension of the decrease wall shape.
Roof plate (nas) rests on both on an eave shape or slanting struts ( Tundals)
Wooden nails ( chukus) maintain the diverse additives in location.
Rafters 8musins) and ground beams ( dhalins) are spaced at durations of 100-150mm depending on beam segment
Roofs are included with special clay tiles (jhingati)
Horizontal timber planks placed over rafters – above that is laid clay is unfold in 40-one hundred mm thick layer – into which jhingati, with overlap of 2/3rd , is pressed.Kopus or Gogochas are unique tiles used for ridges.Dokuns are special tiles used for valleys.Bhauwas are special tiles to offer mild and air flow.Corners and junctions of eaves is emphasised by nook tile ( Kunpa) typically designed as a hen.Tiles are uniform in form but often one of a kind in size.
Construction Techniques:Unlike the Indus valley civilization, the development method of the conventional Newar residence is same as that of the early Greek’s and Egypt’s – the trabeated gadget.Wooden posts, beams and struts used in the homes are clean intermingling of the shape and ornamentation. Usually a dressed natural Stone referred to as lohan or a wooden threshold ( lakanshin) supports the wooden post (than) and wooden bracket ( meth) which helps the burden from the lintel (nina) and beams ( dalin) on the post.A lengthy peg called sa , extending from the submit, passes via the bracket into the beam and holds the 3 structural elements in role. The higher half of of the publish and the brackets are intricately carved, whereas the beams and base plates are typically with out ornament.Super craftsmanship is lavished on the pillars, lateral pilasters, lintels and beams or at the brackets which guide the projecting eaves of the roofs.Lintels over openings are of timber and regularly in 3 parts, stepping upwards closer to the internal.Aspects commonplace to Traditional Newar Architecture:Low and Close: Human Scales- Inside and Out ( Low doorways, Ceiling Heights)Local Building Materialsnear Interaction Between internal and outside spaces. Symmetric/ Central EntranceInformal but structural planning.
References:The traditional structure of the Kathmandu valley,Wolfgang Korn, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu, Nepal 1998.Building today in a Historical context Bhaktapur Nepal,Giovanni Sceibler, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Nepal 1982Nepalese Architecture, N. R. Banarjee, Agam Kala Prakashan , Delhi 1980Kirtipur: An city network in Nepal its humans, city planning, architecture and crafts, Editors: Mehrdad Shokoohy and Natalie H. Shokoohy.Lecture Notes for the duration of Archiview 1998, Prof. Donn Treese.